A glimpse of our culture | Our ethnic friends (1)


Unit: One, Lesson 3: Our ethnic friends (1)
Key words: ethnic region majority shifting
A. Look at the question and discuss in groups.
Have you heard the word 'ethnic people'? Can you tell what it means?
Now look at the pictures. Then discuss the following questions.
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1Do you know where the ethnic people live in Bangladesh?
2What are they called?

B. Now read the text.
The ethnic people in Bangladesh hold a very important place in the culture of the country.
The majority of these people live in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The others live in the regions of Mymensingh, Rajshahi and Sylhet. They live in forest areas, in the hills and in rural areas. They do Jhum cultivation. For this work they clear apiece of land in the forest, prepare it and sow seeds in it. They are mostly farmers. By religion they are Hindus, Christians or Buddhists. They speak their own mother tongues. Some of them are the Chakmas, the Marmans, the Tipperas and the Moorangs, who live in the Hill Tracts. The Santals live in Rajshahi. The Khasias and the Monipuries, live in Sylhet and the Hajangs and the Garos in Mymensingh.

C. True or false? If false, give the correct information.
1All the ethnic people of our country live in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
2Most of them are farmers.
3By religion all of them are Buddhists.
4The Moorangs are an ethnic group.
5They practise jhum cultivation.
D. Ask and answer the questions in pairs.
1Where do you find the Mar/nans?
2What language do they speak at home?
Where and how do they do the Jhum cultivation? 

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Slow and Steady Wins the Race


Read the beginning of the following story and complete it.
Long ago there lived a hare in a forest. He was always proud of his speed. A tortoise also lived nearby. The hare always teased the tortoise for his slow speed---
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Slow and Steady Wins the Race
Or,
Pride Goes Before a Fall
Long ago there lived a hare in a forest. He was always proud of his speed. A tortoise also lived nearby. The hare always teased the tortoise for his slow speed. Being angry at this, one day the tortoise made a proposal to run a race with the hare. The hare gladly accepted his proposal. On the appointed day, they met a cross road. The destination of the race was also marked. Finally, the unequal race began. The hare, from the beginning, started running at the top speed and soon left the tortoise far behind. Crossing almost half of the distance the hare looked back. He found no sign of the tortoise. The hare smiled and said to himself, I am really a fool. I have run so fast for nothing. I am perhaps, ten times as fast as a tortoise. Why should I run so fast in the hot sun with the slow speed tortoise? I will start again when the tortoise will about to catch me and before that I can take test for a while." The hare took rest and at one point he fell asleep. On the contrary, the tortoise continued running as fast as he could. On the way he found the hare sleeping and silently ran past him. While the hare was sleeping, the tortoise came near the destination. In the meantime, the hare woke up and started running very fast. But it was too late. When he reached near the destination, he found the tortoise sitting on the last line i.e. the goal. The hare had no way to defeat the tortoise and he failed. Winning the race, the tortoise became very happy and the hare felt ashamed of his tall talk.
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People or Institutions Making History | Two Women

Unit: One, Lesson 3: Two Women
1. Read the following text on two women of extraordinary achievements and answer the questions that follow:

Valentina Tereshkova (born on 6 March 1937)
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Valentina Tereshkova was born in the village Maslennikovo, Tutayevsky District, in Central Russia. Tereshkova's father was a tractor driver and her mother worked in a textile plant. Tereshkova began school in 1945 at the age of eight, but left school in 1953 and continued her education through distance Learning. She became interested in parachuting from a young age, and trained in skydiving at the local Aeroclub, making her first jump at age 22 on 21 May 1959. At that time she was employed as a textile worker in a local factory. It was her expertise in skydiving that led to her selection as a cosmonaut.

After the flight of Yuri Gagarin (the first human being to travel to outer space in 1961), the Soviet Union decided to send a woman in space. On 16 February 1962, "proletaria" Valentina Tereshkova was selected for this project from among more than four hundred applicants. Tereshkova had to undergo a series of training that included weightless flights, isolation tests, centrifuge tests, rocket theory, spacecraft engineering, 120 parachute jumps and pilot training in MiG-15UTI jet fighters.

Since the successful launch of the spacecraft Vostok-5 on 14 June 1963, Tereshkova began preparing for her own flight On the morning of 16 June 1963, Tereshkova and her back-up cosmonaut Solovyova were dressed in space-suits and taken to the space shuttle launch pad by a bus. After completing her communication and life support checks, she was sealed inside Vostok 6. Finishing a two-hour countdown, Vostok-6 launched faultlessly.

Although Tereshkova experienced nausea and physical discomfort for much of the flight, she orbited the earth 48 times and spent almost three days in space. With a single flight, she logged more flight time than the combined times of all American astronauts who had flown before that date. Tereshkova also maintained a flight log and took photographs of the horizon, which were later used to identity aerosol layers within the atmosphere.

Vostok-6 was the final Vostok flight and was launched two days after Vostok-5, which carried Valary Bykovsy into a similar orbit for five days, landing three hours after Tereshkova. The two vessels approached each other within 5 kilometers at one point, and from space Tereshkova communicated with Bykovsky and the Soviet leader Khrushchev by radio.

Much later, in 1977 Tereshkova earned a doctorate in Engineering from Zhukovsky Air Force Academy. Afterwards she turned to politics. During the Soviet regime she became one of the presidium members of the Supreme Soviet Now this living legend is a member in the lower house of the Russian legislature. On her 70th birthday when she was invited by the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, she expressed her desire to fly to Mars, even if for a one-way trip.

Kalpana Chawla (17 March 1962 -1 February 2003)
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Chawla was born in Kamal, India. She completed her earlier schooling at Tagore Baal Niketan Senior Secondary School, Kamal. She is the first Indian-bom woman and the second person in space from this sub¬continent. After graduating in Aeronautical Engineering from Punjab Engineering College, India, in 1982, Chawla moved to the United States the same year. She obtained her Master's degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas in 1984. Later she did her Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering in 1988 from the University of Colorado.

Determined to become an astronaut even in the face of the Challenger disaster 1986 that broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, leading to the deaths of its seven crew members, Chawla joined NASA in 1988. She began working as a Vice President where she did Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) research on vertical take-off and landing. In 1991 she got U.S. citizenship and started her career as a NASA astronaut in 1995. She was selected for her first flight in 1996. She spoke the following words while travelling in the weightlessness of space, "You are just your intelligence." She had travelled 10.67 million miles, as many as 252 times around the Earth.

Her first space mission (Mission STS 87) began on 19 November 1997 with six other astronauts on the Space Shuttle Columbia. On her first mission that lasted for 15 days, 16 hours, 34 minutes and 4 seconds, she travelled 6.5 million miles. She was responsible for deploying the Spartan Satellite which however malfunctioned, necessitating a spacewalk by Winston Scott and Tako Doi, two of her fellow astronauts, to retrieve the satellite.

In 2000 she was selected for her second space mission STS 107. This mission was repeatedly delayed due to scheduling conflicts and technical problems. On 16 January 2003, Kalpana Chawla finally started her new mission with six other space crew on the ill-fated space shuttle Columbia. She was one of the mission specialists. Chawla's responsibilities included the microgravity experiments, for which the crew conducted nearly 80 experiments studying earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety.

After a 16 day scientific mission in space, on 1 February 2003, Columbia disintegrated over Texas during its re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. All the crew in Columbia including Chawla died only 16 minutes prior to their scheduled landing. Investigation shows that this fatal accident happened due to a damage in one of Columbia's wings caused by a piece of insulating foam from the external fuel tank peeling off during the launch. During the intense heat of re-entry, hot gases penetrated the interior of the wing, destroying the support structure and causing the rest of the shuttle to break down.

2. What do the following words mean? You can use any number of words to establish the meanings.
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3. Read the texts and complete the sentences.
Valentina Tereshkova was the first.
Kalpana Chawla was the first.

4. Work in two groups.
Group A: Read about Valentina Tereshkova 
Group B: Read about Kalpana Chawla 
Now tell each other what you have learnt.

5. These sentences below are true about either Tereshkova or Chawla. Find out which applies to whom.
a. She is an engineer.
b. She is one of the victims of a spacecraft disaster.
c. She came from an ordinary family.
d. She earned a Ph.D. degree.
e. She was selected from among 400 competitors.
f. She was involved in politics.
g. She made history.

6. Find a partner and compare the lives and achievements of Tereshkova and Chawla using your answers.

7. Complete the questions about the two astronauts. Then ask and answer them with your partner.

About Valentina Tereshkova
a. Where......born?
b. When......as a cosmonaut?
c. When......first space flight?
d. How old......then?
e. How......feel in the spacecraft?
f. Who......talk to from the space?
g. What......want to do now?

About Kalpana Chawla
h. Where......born?
i. When......her first flight?
j. Why......to USA?
k. Why......NASA?
l. What......in 1997?
m. How......die?
n. What......make?

What do you think?
Who are some of the famous women in your country and why are they famous?

8. Now find out the similarities and dissimilarities between Tereshkova and Chawla.
Areas of similarities
1. They both are engineers.
2. ......
3. ......
4. ......
5. ......
6. ......
Areas of dissimilarities
1. Tereshkova was born in Russia while Chawla was born in India.
2. ......
3. ......
4. ......
5. ......
6. ......

9. Now write a paragraph in 150 words about Tereshkova and Chawla based on the information provided in the text.

Valentina Tereshkova


Kalpana Chawla
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Pastimes | Change in pastime

Unit: Two, Lesson 3: Change in pastime
A. Read the text.
Childhood outdoor pastimes ‘in decline’
Traditional childhood pastimes of climbing trees and playing conkers are in decline, according to survey by the RSPB (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds). It's a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales.

The survey shows that people under 34 recall far fewer such childhood outdoor experiences than people over 55 s according to a survey by RSPB.

People were asked which of the twelve Childhood outdoor experiences they could remember. The answer included making dens, daisy chains, climbing trees, playing conkers and feeding birds. Four out of five boys climbed trees and the same number of girls made daisy chains. But the survey showed the numbers declining among the newer generations. Some 15% more of those aged over 55 had these outdoor experiences in their childhood, compared with those between 15-34 years old. Some 92% of the public agreed that experiences of nature were still important to children, and 82% agreed that schools should play a role in providing them to all children.
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The survey has highlighted the positive impact of contact with nature on a child's education, health, well being and social skills. At the same time, there has been a decline in these opportunities, with negative consequences for children, families and society-a condition now known as nature deficit disorder.

Mike Clarke, chief executive of the RSPB, will meet parliament members to urge the government to join other organisations in providing children with first hand experiences of the natural environment. "We believe this guidance should include the many positive impacts to children of having contact with nature and learning outside the classroom."
[Adapted from BBC news 6 September 2010]

B. Read the following words and write their meanings as you understand them from the context. If you don't understand, check the words from a dictionary.
conkers.....................
dens .....................
decline.....................
highlight.....................
impact.....................  
consequence.....................
disorder.....................
urge.....................

C. Read the following statement taken from the text in A and say what the subject of comparison is. Find out the other comparison in the text above.
The survey shows that people under 34 recall fewer such childhood outdoor experiences than people over 55, according to a survey by Ipsos Mori for RSPB.

D. Do you agree that if children have more contacts with nature, these will have a positive impact on them? Make a list of the benefits or harms they may have if taken to nature frequently.

E. Speak to the senior citizens in your home or community. Ask them about their pastime activities and take notes on them. Then write a paragraph in the style of the text given in Section A to show the differences. Also mention why these differences have taken place.
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People or Institutions Making History | The Unforgettable History

Unit: One, Lesson 2: The Unforgettable History
1. Warm up activity:
Look at the photograph of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman giving the 7 March 1971 historic speech. Ask and answer the questions in pairs.
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□ What do you know about Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman?
□ Where is he giving the speech? What was the time?
□ What is the significance of the speech?
□ Have you ever heard the speech? Where?

2. Now read the speech below.
My brothers,
2 stand before you today with a heart overflowing with grief. You are fully aware of the events that are going on and understand their 'import. We have been trying to do our best to cope with the situation. And yet, unfortunately, the streets of DhakaChittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi and Rangpur are awash with the blood of our brothers. The people of Bengal now want to be free, the people of Bengal now want to live, and the people of Bengal now want their rights. 7

What have we done that was wrong? After the elections, the people of Bangladesh voted as one for me, for the Awami League. We were to sit in the National Assembly, draft a constitution for ourselves there, and build our country; the people of this land would thereby get economic, political, and cultural freedom. But it is with regret that I have to report to you today that we have passed through twenty-three tragic years; Bengal's history of those years is full of stories of torture inflicted on our people, of blood shed by them repeatedly. Twenty-three years of a history of men and women in agony! 15

The history of Bengal is the history of a people who have repeatedly made their highways crimson with their blood. We shed blood in 1952; even though we were the victors in the elections of 1954 we could not form a government then. In 1958 Ayub Khan declared Martial Law to enslave us for the next ten years. In 1966 when we launched the six point movement our boys were shot dead on 7 June. When after the movement of 1969 Ayub Khan fell from power and Yahya Khan assumed the reins of the government he declared that he would give us a constitution and restore democracy; we listened to him then. A lot has happened since and elections have taken place. 24

I've met President Yahya Khan. Tve made a request to him not only on behalf of Bengal but also as the leader of the party which has the majority in Pakistan; I said to him: "You must hold the session of the National Assembly on 15 January." But he did not listen to me. He listened to Mr. Bhutto instead. At first he said that the meeting would take place in the first week of March. We said, "Fine, we will be taking our seats in the Assembly then." I said we will carry out our discussions in the Assembly. I went so far as to say that if anyone came up with an offer that was just, even though we were in the majority we would agree to that offer. 33

Mr. Bhutto came here; he carried out discussions with us; he had said that the doors of negotiations had not been shut and that there would be further negotiations. I then had talks with other leaders; I said to them, "Come and sit down with us; let's create a constitution for ourselves through discussions." But Mr. Bhutto declared that if West Pakistani members came here the Assembly would end up as a slaughterhouse. He claimed that whoever came here would be slaughtered. He said that if anyone showed up here all shops from Peshawar to Karachi would be shut down. 41

I declared that the Assembly would continue to meet. But suddenly on the 1st of March the Assembly was shut down. Mr. Yahya Khan called the session of the Assembly in his capacity as the President and I declared I would be attending it. Mr. Bhutto said he wouldn't be part of it. Thirty-five members of the Assembly came from West Pakistan to take part in its proceedings. But it was dissolved all of a sudden. The blame was put on the people of Bengal, the finger was pointed at me! 48

After the Assembly's session was prorogued, the people of this country protested. I told them, "Observe the General Strike we have called peacefully." I told them" Shut down all mills and factories." Our people responded to my call. They came to the streets spontaneously. They expressed their firm determination to carry out the struggle peacefully. 53

What have we got in return? Those who brought arms with our money to defend us from external enemies are now using those arms on the poor, -the wretched, -the downtrodden people of the land. Bullets are being aimed at their hearts. We constitute the majority in Pakistan; but whenever we Bengalis have tried to assume power they have used force on us. 58

I have had a talk with Mr. Yahya Khan. I told him, "Mr. Yahya, you are the President of Pakistan; come and observe how the poor people of my country are being mowed down with bullets; come and see how our mothers are being deprived of their children; how my people are being massacred. Come, observe, and only then pass a judgement on what is going on. He has apparently said that I had agreed to attend a Round Table Conference on the 10th of March. Didn't I say a long time back: what is the point of another Round Table conference? Who will I sit with? Should I sit with those who have shed the blood of my people? He has suddenly dissolved the Assembly without carrying out any discussions with me; after sitting in a secret meeting for five hours he gave a speech where he has put all the blame on me. He has even blamed the Bengali people! 69

My brothers,
The Assembly has been called into session on the 25th of March. But the blood spilled on our streets has not yet dried. About the 10th of this month, I have told them: Mujibur Rahman won't join the Round Table Conference because that would mean wading over the blood that has been shed. Although you have called the Assembly into session, you'll have to listen to my demands first. You'll have to withdraw Martial Law. You'll have to return all army personnel to their barracks. You'll have to investigate the way our people have been murdered. And you'll have to transfer power to the representatives of the people. It is only then that Til decide whether we will take our seats in the Assembly or not. I don't want the Prime Minister's office. We want the people of this country to have their rights. I want to state clearly that from this day Bangladesh's courts, magistracies, government offices and educational institutions will be shut down indefinitely. So that the poor don't have to suffer,

so that my people don't have to go through hardships, all other things will be exempted from the General Strike from tomorrow. Rickshaws, horse carriages, trains, and launches will be allowed to move. Only the Secretariat, the Supreme Court, the High Court, Judges' Court, and semi-government organizations such as WAPDA will not be allowed to work. On the 28th employees will go and collect their salaries. If their salaries are not paid, if another bullet is fired, if my people are shot dead again, I request all of you: convert every house into a fort; confront the enemy with whatever you have. And even at the risk of your life, and even if I am not around to direct you, shut down all shops and make sure that traffic on all roads and ports are brought to a standstill. If need be, we will starve to death, but we'll go down striving for our rights. 94

To those in the armed forces I have this to say: you are my brothers; stay in your barracks and no one will bother you. But don't try again to aim your bullets at our chests. You can't suppress seventy million people forever. Since we have learned to sacrifice ourselves no one can suppress us any more. 98

And as for our martyrs and those who have been wounded, we in the Awami League will do everything we can to assist them and their loved ones. If you have the means, please give what little you can to our Relief Committee. To owners of factories whose workers had participated in the General Strike the last seven days I have this to say: make sure that they are paid wages for those days. To government employees I have this to tell: you'll have to listen to my directives. Till our country is liberated, taxes and custom duties won't be collected. No one will pay them either. 106

Remember: the enemy is amidst us to create chaos and confusion, to create anarchy and to loot. In our Bengal Hindus and Muslims, Bengalis and non-Bengalis are all brothers. We are responsible for their safety; let us not taint ourselves in any way. 110

Remember those of you who work for radio and television: if the people running the radio station aren't ready to listen to us, no Bengali will report for work there. Banks will be open for two hours every day so that people can collect their salaries. But we won't allow even a single poisha to be transferred from East Bengal to West Pakistan. Telephones and telegram services will continue as before in our East Bengal; if we have to transmit news abroad you will see to that. But if any attempt is made to exterminate our people all Bengalis must take appropriate action. 118

Form Revolutionary Committees under the leadership of the Awami League in every village, every community. Be prepared to act with whatever you have in your possession. (L 116) 121

Remember: since we have already had to shed blood, we'll have to shed a lot more of it; by the Grace of God, however, we'll be able to liberate the people of this land. 124

The struggle this time is a struggle for freedom—the struggle this time is a
struggle for emancipation. 126

Long live Bengal!
[The speech has been translated by Fakrul Alam]

3. Answer the following questions:
a. Which features of the speech do you appreciate most? Why?
b. What are the two main parts of the speech?
c. Why does Bangabandhu say that "the 23 years of our history with Pakistan is a history of repression and bloodshed?"
d. How do you differentiate between the 'struggle for freedom' and the 'struggle for emancipation?'
e. Can you compare this speech with other famous speeches in history that you know about?

4. Who do the following pronouns refer to?
"you" (line 2), "we" (line 17), "we" (line 20), "we" (line 30), "them" (line 36), "them" (line 50), "they" (line 52), "they" (line 58), "them" (line 73), "you (line 75), "you" (line 90), "them" (line 106), "you" (line 116).

5. Read the speech again. The speech has references to some years and dates in our history. Find out their historical importance and complete the flow chart, ending with 25 March 1971.
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6. Make three separate lists of Bangabandhu's directives to different sections of people.
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7. See the grid below. It has two columns—one on Causes and the other on Effects. Provide the missing causes against effects and missing effects against the causes provided.
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8. Write a paragraph on the major events leading to March 7.

9. Project work
a. Present your ideas on how the March 7 speech has become a part of our history.
b. Make a fact file on Bangabandhu's life.

Video on

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's historic 7th March speech

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The Lion and the Mouse


Read the beginning of the following story and complete it.
One day a lion was sleeping in its cave. A mouse was playing nearby. While playing it by chance it ran over the lion’s body----

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The Lion and the Mouse
One day a lion was sleeping in its cave. A mouse was playing nearby. While playing it by chance it ran over the lion's body. At this, the lion woke up and became very angry. With a terrible roar he caught the mouse and said, "You are tiny creature, how dare you tease me? I will kill you." The mouse began to tremble in fear and begged for its life. It also said, "Please let me go, sooner or later, I may help you." Hearing this, the lion burst into laughter. However, he set the mouse free. After sometime, the lion fell into a hunter's trap. The lion tried his best to be free from the net but could not. He began to roar. Listening this, the mouse came swiftly and found the lion in a trap. The mouse cut the net inter pieces and the lion became free; Being free, the lion said. "You are small in size but worthy. You have saved my life and many thanks to you." In fact, the strong or mighty someone Is also dependent on the weak one. From then, the lion was kind hearten to the tiny creatures. From the story we learn that we should have fellow-feelings among us and the rich should show kindness to the poor.
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Pastimes | Reading really helps!

Unit: Two, Lesson 2: Reading really helps!
A. Read the conversation and teU what Anusha ii going to read.
Anusha   : Trya, hope you enjoyed the article on yoga,
Tiya : Yes, it's great By the way, Anusha, how did yon enjoy
London Olympics as a sports lover?
Anusha   : People rightly say that it is the greatest show on earth. I'm still thrilled to remember what Michael Phelps and Usain BoH have shown. Amazing!
Tiya : Right you are. They are  incredible. However, I've got an interesting article on the Internet on Michael Phelps and Uaain Bolt. You might like it end take part in the debate on who is better between these two greats. Please read it.
Anusha   : Ahh. Michael Phelps and Usain Boh! Thank you Tiya! I would love to read it.

B. Read tire text published in a newspaper In 2012, and answer the questions that follow.

Michael Phelps, Usain Bolt are great, but who's better?
With the curtains closing on the 2012 London Olympics, its impossible not to look back and reflect on the greatest performances by Olympic athletes.
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The Olympics have many memorable moments and athletes we'll remember by name alone. The list is quite big. Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt are the latest addition to this list of the bests. They made London Olympics stand apart. If there is any question like this: "What is the standout performance of London 2012?", perhaps the answer is "The London Games gave us Michael Phelps vs. Usain Bolt." The first one is an already decorated Olympian, who put the finishing touches on his great athletic careers. And another came up with a new definition of fast. Two of the most popular Olympic sports, sprinting and swimming, saw their two biggest stars captivating audiences. They'd also dominated the 2008 Beijing Games, but Phelps and Bolt cemented their legacies in London. Phelps, the American swimmer, passed gymnast Larissa Latynia for the most Olympic medals ever. Bolt was the third man to repeat as a 100-meter gold medalist and the first as a 200-meter gold medalist, and he broke his own Olympic record by running the 100 meter in 9.63 seconds. Once Phelps and Bolt were back in their pool and track, the story lines changed.

Phelps is the most-decorated Olympian ever, with 22 overall medals: 18 gold, 2 silver, 2 bronze. Bolt is the most accomplished Olympic sprinter, with the unprecedented double, making clear that he's the fastest man in the world.

But there's a debate: Who had the better Olympics? It'd be tough to top Phelps' eight gold medals in Beijing, but what if we're only talking London?

London was Phelps' grand finale. He won four golds and two silvers in seven events, and he says he'll never race again.

London was Bolt's chance to prove he's still the greatest. Bolt won six gold medals in six Olympic finals. He is the first man ever in the history of the modern Games to sweep the 100 and 200 in back-to-back Olympics. Not to mention the addition of back-to-back relay golds.

And Bolt became a legend, in his own words. Phelps already was. Bolt is just 25 years old, so there is no telling how long he can be on top of the sprinting world. What if he decides to "retire" from sprinting to focus on the 400 meters, just to break another world record or two? It would be amazing-and entirely possible for him to accomplish.

Who had the better 2012 Games? You tell us, let the debate begin.
[Adapted from USA Today, Sports, London 2012]

Questions
1. What makes London Olympic 2012 exceptionally sensational?
2. How are Phelps and Bolt brilliantly similar and different?
3. Between these two Olympians who has bagged the highest honour within the same time frame?
4. What is special in Bolt so far?
5. How does Bolt evaluate himself?

C. Make two flow charts on Michael Phelps and Usain Bolt. The first two are done for you.
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D. Read the following text and complete the blank spaces with the appropriate words from the below.
answer,   sprinter,   Olympians,   speed,   Olympics, swimmer,
debate,  legends,  retired,  prove,   histories, biggest.

These are the stories of two most successful Olympians of history. While one is famous as the fastest......., the other is celebrated as the fastest.......of the world. However, both are unparalleled for their in their own field. They made history in the Beijing....... They have made newer .......in the London Olympics too. They are the living.......now. Though Phelps has.......from his race, Bolt has prospects to.......himself in the next Olympic as well. After the.......show on earth is over in London, this.......will go on— who is better. Only time will.......this question.

E. Work in pairs. Decide who is better between these two champions. Give arguments in favour of your decisions.
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Unity is Strength | The old man and his sons

Read the beginning of the following story and complete it.
There was an old farmer. He had four sons. They were all grown up. But they had no good relation with one another. They were disobedient and always quarreled among themselves. The old man was-----
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Unity is Strength
There was an old farmer. He had four sons. They were all grown up. But they had no good relation with one another. They were disobedient and always quarreled among themselves. The old man was very anxious about their future. In order to teach them the value of unity, one day he called his sons together and told his youngest son to bring some sticks. The son brought some sticks; The old man-asked him to bind the sticks together. The farmer asked his sons-to break the bundle. They tried one by one but none of them was successful. Then the old farmer told the sons to untie the bundle. When they did it, he asked them to break the sticks separately. They broke the sticks one by one very easily. The old man said, "My sons! If you remain united like the slicks and do not quarrel, nobody can harm you. On the other hand, if you quarrel among yourselves, you will lope strength and your enemies, will easily do you harm. So live in peace." The sons got the point and promised to follow their father's advice.
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Pasttimes | Have you any favourite pastime?


Unit: Two, Lesson 1: Have you any favourite pastime?
ALook at the pictures. What are the persons doing here? When do they do these kinds of activities?
BRead the conversation and answer the questions.
Tiya        : Anusha, what's the matter? You're wearing sports trousers, T-shirts, sports shoes and carrying a bag! Where are you coming from? And you look tired!
Anusha   : Not exactly, Tiya. I'm great because I'm just coming back from the gym.
Tiya        : Do you go to the gym regularly?
Anusha   : Yes, I do. I go twice a week. It's one of my favourite pastimes.
Tiya        : Really! Going to the gym is your favourite pastime! You make me laugh!
Anusha  : Why not? I like sports because I like to be fit. I'm not a lazy person like you!
Tiya        : What do you do there?
Anusha   : I do yoga.
Tiya        : Don't you have any other pastimes?
Anusha   : Hmm... yes, I have. I like playing chess, painting, and reading books when I'm free. I also like photography but I'm yet to learn it. What do you do in your pastime?Tiya        : I like watching TV, listening to music, reading books and magazines, and playing games on the computer. I do like gardening. But we don't have sufficient space. So I do pot planting. By the way, I don't know much about yoga. Would you please tell me about it?
Anusha   : Sure! I'll give you an article on it. It will help you know about yoga. Okay?
Questions
1  Why does Anusha like going to the gym?
2  What are her pastimes?
3  Make a list of Tiya's pastimes.
4  How will Tiya learn about yoga?
C. Read the following texts. Then check (V ) the statements below:
Yoga: Tap into the many health benefits
Understanding yoga
Yoga is a kind of posture and breathing exercise. It brings together physical and mental disciplines to achieve peace of body and mind, helping you relax and manage stress and anxiety. Traditional yoga puts emphasis on behavior, diet and meditation. But if you're just looking for better stress management—and not an entire lifestyle change—yoga can still help. Yoga trainers gradually choose easier to complex activities for practitioners. However, all practitioners do not necessarily need the same kinds of practice.

The health benefits of yoga
The potential health benefits of yoga are numerous and may include:
• Stress reduction. With its quiet, precise movements, yoga draws your focus away from your busy, chaotic day and towards calm as you move your body through poses that require balance and concentration.
 Increased fitness. As you learn and refine new poses, you may enjoy improved balance, flexibility, range of motion and strength. And this means you're less likely to injure yourself in other physical endeavors or in your daily activities.

  Management of chronic health conditions. Yoga might help in a variety of health conditions, such as cancer, depression, pain, anxiety and insomnia, fatigue and mood shifts. Yoga can also help reduce heart rate and blood pressure.
  Weight loss. If you're overweight or have eating disorder, yoga may help you make the healthy lifestyle changes necessary to gain control of your eating and reduce weight.
While you shouldn't expect yoga to cure you or offer you 100 percent relief, it can help some health conditions when combined with standard treatment. And if you already enjoy good health, yoga can be an enjoyable supplement to your regular fitness routine.

D. Work in pairs. Discuss these questions. Give your own opinions.
1       How does exercise work on our memory?
2       What other benefits can you think of from exercise?
3       What is the most important benefit of exercise to you and why?
E. Complete the sentences.
a   Yoga is a practice of............................................................
b   Traditional Yoga works through..............................................................
c   Yoga is very effective in managing.................................................
d   Through the poses of balance and concentration Yoga...........................
e   ............................................................    results in increased fitness.
f    Yoga can reduce or work for...................................................................
g   Yoga can control..........................................................
h   Yoga cannot cure 100 percent, but................................................... 

F. Check (V) the statements about yoga below.
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G. Read the text:
Hi, I'm Shyam. I'm from Magura. Although it's the district headquarters, it's a small town. I'm in grade 9 now in Chander Haat Bidyaloya. I love games and sports very much. My father was an athlete in his student life. He inspires me to follow his footsteps and take part in games and sports or do some exercise besides my studies. So I get up early in the morning and take a walk with my father almost every day. We walk for about an hour. At school, during break I play kabadi, gollachhut, badminton, table tennis, and carom. Sometimes I prac­tise the high jump and the long jump outside the school campus. Playing football is a passion for me. I like watching television too.

I watch sports programmes on different TV channels during my free time. I'm a fan of National Geographic, Discovery, and Animal Planet for their documentaries as they are quite interesting as well as educative. Recently my father has presented me with a camera as he was very happy with the result of my Junior School Certificate exam. When I hold the camera, I feel so excited! I wish I could be an amateur photographer in future - not to take only personal photographs at different parties but to shoot our beautiful Bangladesh. I'm sure that soon photography will be my most favourite pastime.

H. Work in pairs. Read the statements of the following grid. First match the parts in Column B with Column C to make complete sentences. Then make questions for the statements in Column A.
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IWrite about your own pastime following the model in G.

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Good Citizens | Responsibilities


Unit: One, Lesson 4: Responsibilities
A. Read the text.
Rony's mother gave him 50 taka to buy salt and chillies. On his way to the market, Rony found a poor passer-by trying to hold a boy up, who was lying on the road, groaning. Coming near, Rony saw that it was his classmate Tanim, who was hit by a speeding motorbike. Immediately he stopped a baby taxi and took Tanim to a clinic. From there he phoned Tanim's parents. When they came to the clinic, Rony returned home without the salt and chillies. He had used the money to pay the taxi driver.
Now discuss in groups the following questions.
1Did Rony do right or wrong? Why ?
2. What do you think his mother did when Rony returned home without the salt and chillies?
3What else could Rony do in the situation?
4What do you understand by responsibility?

B. Read the text and answer the following question: What is responsibility?
A responsibility is a duty or an obligation TO DO something. For example, you have the responsibility to attend school and pursue your studies properly, to take care of your parents in their old age, and so on. You also have responsibility to your society and the government, e.g. to help a neighbour in trouble or to cast your vote if you are 18 or over.

A responsibility is also an obligation or a duty NOT TO DO something. For example, you have the responsibility not to steal a book from a public library or not to pile up your building materials on the footpath. These are your responsibilities as citizens. But there are responsibilities of the government as well. Our government has the responsibility to provide for its citizens "the basic necessities of life, including food, clothing, shelter, education and medical care"1. The government also has the responsibility to protect the fundamental rights of its citizens which include freedom of speech and expression, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, equality of all before law2 etc.

The knowledge, skills and attitudes you have gained at home, at school and in society will help you to be aware of your responsibilities and to carry them out effectively. Remember, discharging your responsibilities will be good for you, good for your family and friends, and good for your society and country as a whole.
Notes
1       The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Part II.
2       Part m, ibid (Ibid : abbreviation from Latin ibidem which means in the same book or piece of writing as the one that has just been mentioned.)

CDiscuss in groups and write answers to these questions.
1      Which persons and institutions do ou have responsibilities for? Make a list. The first in the list is done for you.
a. parents
b.....................
c....................
2      Make a list of responsibilities you have as a student at home, school and in society.
     3      Make another list of things you shouldn't do at home, school and in society.
4      Who do you get help from to discharge the responsibilities you have listed in CI? How do they help you?
5      Are there any difficulties in fulfilling the responsibilities? Briefly describe them.
6      Make a list of responsibilities other people have towards you. Briefly describe what might happen if they fail to fulfill the responsibilities.
      7     (a) What rewards are you likely to get if you fulfill your responsibilities?
(b) What penalties or punishments may you get, if you do not carry out your responsibilities?
 8 What responsibilities do you think you can perform well when you go on a class picnic or when your school stages a play as part of its annual prize-giving ceremony?

D. Look at the picture. Work in pairs.
Suppose this road is near your school. As students of this school, what responsibilities do you think you have to get rid of this nuisance? Make a list of things that you will do.
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